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小型自動上料攪拌車液壓系統的優化
來源:http://www.hantestone.com發布日期:2022-01-10   瀏覽量:
 
液壓系統的可靠性是用主機液壓系統在工況正常操縱下,無故障使用時間來表示的。顯然,無故障使用時間越長,可靠性越好。一個主機液壓系統可靠性不好,是沒有使用意義的。液壓系統的壽命主要取決于如下因素,3個因素在整機中同等重要,任何環節出現問題均會影響整機的正常運轉。
The reliability of the hydraulic system is expressed by the fault free service time of the main engine hydraulic system under normal operation under rated working conditions. Obviously, the longer the trouble free service time, the better the reliability. The reliability of a main engine hydraulic system is not good, which is meaningless. The service life of the hydraulic system mainly depends on the following factors. The three factors are equally important in the whole machine. Any problem in any link will affect the normal operation of the whole machine.
(1)液壓元件的設計;
(1) Design of hydraulic components;
(2)元件的選擇;
(2) Selection of components;
(3)使用與維護。
(3) Use and maintenance.
小型自動上料攪拌車液壓系統的優化
Optimization of hydraulic system of small automatic feeding mixer
1小型自動上料攪拌車液壓系統故障原因分析
Failure analysis of hydraulic system of 1 small automatic feeding mixer
自動上料攪拌車在建設過程中的重要作用日益彰顯。大型自動上料攪拌車一般從攪拌站裝上攪拌好的混凝土,轉運至工地使用;而小型自動上料攪拌車一般是在工地附近,具有自裝卸、配料與自攪拌功能,減少長距離運輸且省工的特點。自動上料攪拌車的液壓系統又分為閉式液壓系統與開式液壓系統。
Automatic loading mixer plays an increasingly important role in the construction process. Large automatic loading mixer truck generally loads the mixed concrete from the mixing plant and transports it to the construction site for use; The small automatic loading mixer is generally near the construction site, with the functions of self loading and unloading, batching and self mixing, reducing long-distance transportation and saving labor. The hydraulic system of automatic feeding mixer is divided into closed hydraulic system and open hydraulic system.
一客戶的批量小型自動上料攪拌車在使用過程中出現以下幾種故障現象:(1)空載下,轉罐轉速可達到設計要求,而裝滿料以后很難起動,即使在發動機大轉速下轉罐轉速也很低;(2)液壓油散馬達的進油膠管出現多臺爆管故障;(3)轉罐馬達的故障率非常高,多臺出現馬達內部卡死或軸端密封損壞向外串油。
A customer's batch small automatic feeding mixer truck has the following faults during use: (1) under no-load, the rotating speed of the drum can meet the design requirements, but it is difficult to start after filling, and the rotating speed of the drum is very low even under high engine speed; (2) Several oil inlet hoses of hydraulic oil dispersion motor burst; (3) The failure rate of the drum motor is very high. Many motors are stuck inside or the shaft end seal is damaged, and oil is spilled outward.
從原理上來看,液壓系統為開式負載敏開芯回路,通過安裝在發動機上的齒輪泵持續向換向閥供油,由先導控制閥作為總開關,通過控制電磁換向閥的翹板開關實現轉罐馬達的正轉與反轉。換向閥的回油分兩路回油箱:一路通過節流閥回油箱,另一路驅動油散馬達,為其他系統的回油進行散熱。
In principle, the hydraulic system is an open load sensitive open core circuit, which continuously supplies oil to the change-over valve through the gear pump installed on the engine, takes the pilot control valve as the main switch, and realizes the forward and reverse rotation of the can motor by controlling the rocker switch of the electromagnetic change-over valve. The oil return of the reversing valve is divided into two ways to return to the oil tank: one way returns to the oil tank through the throttle valve, and the other way drives the oil dispersion motor to dissipate heat for the oil return of other systems.
小型自動上料攪拌車液壓系統的優化
Optimization of hydraulic system of small automatic feeding mixer
通過故障情況與原理對比分析,認為換向閥的回油通過節流閥的閥口來控制油散馬達的工作轉速,且節流閥閥口是在出廠前根據發動機怠速調節油散馬達轉速的,一旦節流閥閥口固定,通油能力就會被限制在一定的范圍內,然而換向閥的輸出流量與發動機的轉速成正比關系,在發動機高速運轉時,換向閥T口油液無法快速回到油箱,造成油散馬達的進油管處壓力過高,超過膠管承受的壓力,所以爆管現象時有發生。因無法得到更詳細的技術參數與資料,重載轉速慢及馬達故障率高是否有直接關聯,通過現場查看實車的系統現狀及使用過程工況,從使用工況來分析故障原因。
Through the comparative analysis of fault conditions and principles, it is considered that the return oil of the directional valve controls the working speed of the oil dispersion motor through the valve port of the throttle valve, and the throttle valve port adjusts the speed of the oil dispersion motor according to the idle speed of the engine before leaving the factory. Once the throttle valve port is fixed, the oil passing capacity will be limited to a certain range, However, the output flow of the change-over valve is directly proportional to the engine speed. When the engine is running at high speed, the oil at the T port of the change-over valve cannot quickly return to the oil tank, resulting in too high pressure at the oil inlet pipe of the oil dispersion motor, which exceeds the pressure borne by the rubber hose, so pipe explosion occurs from time to time. Since it is impossible to obtain more detailed technical parameters and data, whether there is a direct correlation between the slow speed of heavy load and the high failure rate of motor, check the system status and operating conditions of the real vehicle on site, and analyze the failure causes from the operating conditions.
從現場的管路情況看到,吸油管過長過細,且齒輪泵的位置高于油箱吸油口的位置,經理論計算齒輪泵吸油管液壓油大流速達到4m/s,遠超過設計標準。同時,齒輪泵本身的自吸能力差,在高轉速時吸油管內產生負壓,齒輪泵內部吸油不足加速磨損,容積效率快速下降,導致轉罐在重載情況下轉速下降明顯。
It can be seen from the pipeline situation on site that the oil suction pipe is too long and thin, and the position of the gear pump is higher than that of the oil suction port of the oil tank. Through theoretical calculation, the large flow rate of hydraulic oil in the oil suction pipe of the gear pump reaches 4m / s, far exceeding the design standard. At the same time, the self-priming capacity of the gear pump itself is poor, resulting in negative pressure in the oil suction pipe at high speed, insufficient oil suction in the gear pump accelerates wear, and the volumetric efficiency decreases rapidly, resulting in an obvious decrease in the speed of the drum under heavy load.
讓客戶現場演示真實工況,發現兩個重要問題:
Let the customer demonstrate the real working conditions on site and find two important problems:
(1)轉罐轉速在停止時會發出一聲尖叫,停止突然,尤其是在發動機大油門的情況下,駕駛員操縱翹板開關使轉罐停止時沒有任何緩沖;(2)在裝料后轉場的過程中,為了不讓混凝土凝固,罐體會始終在轉動狀態。然而,罐體轉速在行走過程中非???,即缸體轉速與發動機的轉速成正比,當駕駛員加大油門高速行駛時,轉罐轉速也會隨之加快,這是非常危險的事情,因為轉罐較高,在急轉彎時轉罐在慣性作用下易出現翻車事故。
(1) When the rotating speed of the drum stops, it will emit a scream and stop suddenly. Especially when the engine is at high throttle, the driver operates the rocker switch to stop the drum without any buffer; (2) In the process of transfer after loading, the tank will always rotate in order to prevent the concrete from solidification. However, the speed of the tank body is very fast during walking, that is, the speed of the cylinder body is directly proportional to the speed of the engine. When the driver increases the accelerator to drive at high speed, the speed of the drum will also accelerate, which is a very dangerous thing, because the drum is high, and the drum is prone to rollover accident under the action of inertia during sharp turning.
由此得出系統還存在兩個問題:(1)液壓系統沖擊嚴重,沒有緩沖功能,且換向閥閥芯回中位速度不受控制,閥芯中位機能為O型,正在高速旋轉的轉罐實然間被停止,而罐體質量為7t,慣性很大,在停止時通過減速機直接作用在轉罐馬達上,使馬達受力超過力矩,造成馬達內部卡死或軸端密封損壞向減速機內部串油;(2)轉罐轉速不可控,轉罐速度只與發動機的轉速呈正比,當駕駛員快速行駛時,轉罐速度隨之加快,此現象完全不能滿足工況的實際需求。
From this, it is concluded that there are two problems in the system: (1) the hydraulic system has serious impact and no buffer function, and the return median speed of the reversing valve spool is not controlled. The median function of the spool is O-type. The rotating drum rotating at high speed is actually stopped, while the mass of the tank is 7T and the inertia is very large. When it is stopped, it acts directly on the drum motor through the reducer, Make the force of the motor exceed the rated torque, resulting in the internal jamming of the motor or the damage of the shaft end seal, and oil spilling into the reducer; (2) The rotating speed of the can is uncontrollable, and the speed of the can is only proportional to the speed of the engine. When the driver drives fast, the speed of the can is accelerated, which can not meet the actual needs of the working conditions.
2自動上料攪拌車液壓系統特改優化
Special modification and optimization of hydraulic system of 2 automatic feeding mixer
在現有系統的基礎上進行特改,受到減速機、齒輪泵、換向閥及結構件等現有元器件布局的限制,同時成本也是客戶關注的,所以在有限費用的前提下,通過原理及細節的調整優化系統,使其故障率降低到可接受的范圍內。
The special modification based on the existing system is limited by the layout of existing components such as reducer, gear pump, directional valve and structural parts, and the cost is also concerned by customers. Therefore, on the premise of limited cost, the system is adjusted and optimized through principles and details to reduce the failure rate to an acceptable range.
(1)增加緩沖功能,在換向閥的A、B口安裝兩個二次壓力補油閥,其壓力設定為12.5MPa,稍高于系統工作壓力,并具有補油功能,在換向閥閥芯關閉時,能夠使馬達在轉罐慣性的作用下繼續轉動,壓力油通過二次壓力補油閥溢出到換向閥T口,同時馬達的低油腔通過另一個補油閥完成補油,保護了轉罐馬達與減速機。
(1) The buffer function is added. Two secondary pressure oil makeup valves are installed at ports a and B of the change-over valve. The pressure is set to 12.5mpa, slightly higher than the system working pressure, and has the oil makeup function. When the change-over valve core is closed, the motor can continue to rotate under the inertia of the drum, and the pressure oil overflows to port t of the change-over valve through the secondary pressure oil makeup valve, At the same time, the low oil chamber of the motor completes oil replenishment through another oil replenishment valve to protect the drum motor and reducer.
(2)實現轉罐速度可調。將現有的翹板開關控制換向閥先導油路改為具有摩擦定位功能的液控手柄控制換向閥換向,使轉罐速度可調可控,且不增加駕駛員的勞動強度。當駕駛員駐車攪拌時,可將手柄推至大,轉罐轉速隨發動機轉速變化;當行走時可將液控手柄調至小角度位置,使換向閥的流量需求很小,在負載敏換向閥的共同作用下,不管發動機轉速是多少,轉罐即可在恒定的轉速下運轉,達到既不讓混凝土凝固、又不會在行走過程中發生危險的目的。
(2) The speed of can transfer is adjustable. The pilot oil circuit of the existing rocker switch controlled directional valve is changed into a hydraulic control handle with friction positioning function to control the directional valve, so that the rotating tank speed can be adjusted and controlled without increasing the labor intensity of the driver. When the driver parks the car for mixing, push the handle to the large position, and the rotating speed of the drum changes with the engine speed; When walking, the hydraulic control handle can be adjusted to the small angle position, so that the flow demand of the directional valve is very small. Under the joint action of the load sensitive directional valve, no matter what the engine speed is, the drum can run at a constant speed, so as to achieve the purpose of neither allowing the concrete to solidify nor causing danger during walking.
(3)在換向閥的先導油口a、b處增加單向節流閥,使換向閥關閉時具有一定時間的延時,這樣在轉罐停止前有一段減速的過程,與二次壓力緩沖閥共用,達到動作緩和與保護元件的效果。
(3) A one-way throttle valve is added at the pilot oil ports a and B of the directional valve to make the closing of the directional valve have a certain time delay. In this way, there is a deceleration process before the drum stops, which is shared with the secondary pressure buffer valve to achieve the effect of action relaxation and protection of components.
(4)更換已損壞的齒輪泵,并加粗吸油管徑至25mm、加大吸油濾油器過油能力,使吸油大流速控制在1m/s以下。
(4) Replace the damaged gear pump, increase the oil suction pipe diameter to 25mm, increase the oil passing capacity of the oil suction filter, and control the large oil suction flow rate below 1m / s.
(5)拆除換向閥回油管路上的節流閥,使換向閥回油直接回油箱,油散馬達由另外一個泵單獨驅動,使回油順暢,避免回油壓力過高導致液壓元件故障及不必要的壓力損失。
(5) Remove the throttle valve on the oil return pipeline of the change-over valve to make the return oil of the change-over valve return directly to the oil tank. The oil dispersion motor is driven separately by another pump to make the oil return smooth and avoid the failure of hydraulic components and unnecessary pressure loss caused by too high return oil pressure.

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